by Robert A. Morey
© 1996 Research and Education Foundation
When you pick up a copy of the Qur'an, several
questions should immediately come to your mind:
These questions are good and necessary. But how
can we find answers to them? There are two different
approaches to answering these questions
1. The Muslim approach depends upon secondary sources
which were put together generations after Muhammad died.
The Sira and the Hadith supply the Muslim with the
official answers to these questions. Thus while the
Qur'an does not answer the questions above, the Hadith
does. Note: Muslims are guilty of circular reasoning at
this point: They prove the Qur'an by the Hadith and then
prove the Hadith by the Qur'an!
2. The secular approach focuses on the issue of
primary sources. It questions the veracity of the
Traditions as well as the veracity of the Qur'an. It does
not want material written in the ninth or tenth century
telling them what was written in the seventh century.
They want actual material from the seventh and eight
century. The failure of the Muslims to come up with
anything has great implications.
The Hadith is sometimes called the second inspiration
with the Qur'an being the first inspiration. The Hadith
claims to be the record of Muhammad's exposition and
application of the Qur'an, biographical material on
Muhammad, and the history of the writing, collection, and
composition of the text of the Qur'an. (Bukhari vol. VI,
no. 564). The authority and authenticity of the Qur'an
depends entirely upon the integrity and teachings of the
Hadith. In other words, the Qur'an is valid only if the
Hadith is true. If it is false, then the Qur'an is
The integrity of Muhammad is all important. He was
either whom he claimed to be, a liar or a nut case
(mentally insane or demon possessed). This is why the
Traditions went to such great lengths to create a model
of Muhammad that depicts him as a "super man"
as well as a prophet. What do we find in the Hadith?
- Muhammad's credentials for prophethood are
unacceptable. The two prominent Hadithic
"proofs" of his prophethood came from
pagan ideas of what a shaman would look like and
the manner in which he would be inspired.
A. The Hadith explains that when the Qur'an
refers to the seal of prophethood being upon
Muhammad (Surah 33:40), the seal was a large
hairy mole on his back. This is found in both
Bukhari (vol. 1, no. 189; vol. IV, no. 741) and
Muslim (vol. IV, no. 5790,5793). This mole was
the physical proof that Muhammad was a prophet
according to Tabari and other later Muslim
authorities. They even claimed that the mole was
a fulfillment of such Scriptures as Isa. 9:6. We
cannot accept this proof. While such ideas can be
found in pagan traditions from many primitive
cultures, it is not a part of the religion of
Abraham, the prophets, the apostles or Jesus.
B. Both the Bukhari and Muslim Hadiths describe
what happened to Muhammad when inspiration came
upon him. He heard ringing in his ears, fell to
the ground, turned red, sweated profusely, made
moaning sounds, spit ran from his mouth, etc.
While ancient pagans placed a great deal of
importance on such things, they were never a part
of the biblical prophets.
- He failed a direct test of his claim to
prophethood. He was asked to explain why a child will
look like one parent as opposed to looking like the
other. He claimed that Gabriel came and gave the inspired
answer. See Bukhari vol. IV: no. 546. So, we are dealing
with revelation and not just his personal opinion. He
said that the child will look like which parent reaches
his or her sexual climax first. The study of genetics and
DNA forever disproves this idea.
- He believed in magic, the evil eye, amulets, omens,
spells, etc. He was superstitious about many things and
made up weird rules about bathroom duties (Bukhari vol.
1, no. 144; vol. IV, nos. 110, 111; vol. VII, nos. 636,
648, 649, 650; Muslim vol. I, no. 458; vol. III, 3 nos.
5424, 5427). He was afraid whenever a strong wind blew
(Bukhari vol. II, no. 144) and of eclipses (Bukhari vol.
II, no. 167).
While this is bad enough, the Hadith tells us that
Muhammad was at times under magical spells, i.e.,
bewitched, and told lies and did things while under those
spells. (Bukhari vol. IV, nos. 400, 490; VII, no. 660;
Muslim vol. III, no. 5428) Once it is admitted that he
told lies and did things while under satanic influence,
then the entire Qur'an could be satanic in origin.
Later Muslim authorities even went so far as to say
that he was at one time inspired by Satan to put some
verses into the Qur'an. They were later removed because
they were Satanic verses. (Surah 53:19,20)
- The Hadith tells us that "Allah made the
prophet wealthy through conquests." (Bukhari III:
no. 495), Was he in it for the money? Some Muslims are
ignorant of this Hadith and claim that Muhammad was poor
- He did not keep the rules he imposed upon others.
He had more wives than four (Bukhari vol. I, no. 268) and
did not write a will (Bukhari vol. IV, nos. 3,4).
- He commanded that anyone who fell away from Islam
should be murdered. (Bukhari vol IV, no. 260; vol. V, no.
630) Volume IX is filled with death threats against
apostasy (pgs. 10,11, 26, 34, 45, 50, 57, 341, 342).
These Hadiths contradict other Hadiths which say that no
one ever leaves Islam (Bukhari vol. I, nos. 6, 48).
The punishment of apostates reveals that he did not
believe in the freedom of religion, the freedom of
speech, the freedom of assembly and the freedom of the
press. The fact that he commanded that no churches or
synagogues be allowed in Arabia is a telling argument
that he was not a man of peace.
- The Hadith reveals that Muhammad had to ask
forgiveness for sin more than seventy times a day.
(Bukhari vol. I, nos. 711; 78; vol. V, no. 724) Since
Muslims believe that prophets must be sinless, this means
that Muhammad was not a prophet.
- He was guilty of false prophecies.
1 - The 100 yr. Prophecy. (Bukhari vol. I,
2. The end of the world predictions.
(Bukhari vol. IV, no.401)
- He kissed and caressed the idol of black stone set
into the wall of the Kabah. (Muslim vol. II, no. 2912,
2916) We cannot imagine Abraham or Jesus kissing a pagan
idol and then commanding their followers to do so.
- While Muslims claim that Muhammad was illiterate
in order to make the Qur'an a miracle, the Hadith records
that he could in fact read and write. (Bukhari vol. IV,
II. The Teachings of Muhammad
Just as the Hadith gives us good reasons to question
the integrity of Muhammad, his teachings recorded in the
Hadith give us even more reason to doubt he was a
prophet. The following is a brief list of some of the
strange and absurd teachings of Muhammad.
1. Adam was 60 cubits tall! (Bukhari vol. IV, no. 543)
Then how tall was Eve? If they were that tall, how did we
get here? Is it medically possible for him to be that
2. Muhammad was a dog hater. He thought that angels
could not enter a house if a dog was there and that black
dogs were devils. Thus he ordered dogs to be killed and
forbid the selling of dogs. (Bukhari vol- IV, nos. 539,
540; Muslim vol. I, nos. 551, 552; vol. II, nos. 3803,
3. Satan lives in the nose over night. He can be
flushed out if you snort water up and then out the nose.
(Bukhari vol. IV, no. 516; Muslim vol. I, no. 462) How
big is Satan? Is he in everyone's nose? Is he
4. Muhammad forbade the game of chess! (Muslim vol.
IV, no. 5612) This makes no sense to me.
5. People turn into rats, pigs and monkeys. (Bukhari
vol. IV, nos. 524, 627; Muslim vol. IV, no. 7135).
Abraham's father was turned into an animal (Bukhari vol.
6. Muslims have one intestine while non-Muslims have
seven! (Muslim vol. 111, no. 5113-5115)
7. If you lift up your eyes towards heaven while
praying, your eyes will be snatched out! (Muslim vol.
III, nos. 862-863)
8. One wing of a fly has poison but the other wing has
the antidote to it. (Bukhari vol. IV, no. 537)
9. We should drink camel urine as a medicine. (Bukhari
vol. I, no. 234)
10. Fevers are from the fire of hell and can be cooled
by water. (Bukhari vol. IV, nos. 483, 486)
III. The Text of the Qur'an
Who wrote out the Qur'an? On what materials? Who put
the Qur'an together? Where did he find the materials to
do this? Why did he do this? Were others putting together
their own Qur'ans? Did these Qur'ans contradict each
other? How did one text gain dominance over all the
others? What happened to the other Qur'ans? Only the
Hadith gives us answers to these questions.
From Bukhari vol. VI, no. 509 we learn the
1. Muhammad did not collect the fragments of the
Qur'an and make them into a manuscript. (b) Some of the Companions of
Muhammad were killed in battle and whatever
surahs they had memorized died with them. (c) Abu Bakr asked Zaid to collect
the fragments of the Qur'an and arrange them into
a manuscript. (d) Zaid hesitated because the task
was harder than sifting through an entire
mountain. The task was difficult because
- the fragile nature of the fragments: palm
leaves, stones, bones, etc.
- the faulty memories of men (vol. VI, no. 527)
- the false claims of men (vol. VI, no 523)
- conflicting versions of the Qur'an (vol VI,
no. 510, 514, 523)
- contradictory orders of the surahs (vol VI,
no. 515, 518)
- God caused verses to be abrogated or
forgotten. (vol. IV, nos. 57, 62, 69, 299, 393;
VI, nos. 510, 511, 527,
- Muhammad himself forgot and missed various
parts of the Qur'an (vol. VI, no. 558, 562)/ol>
2. Even after the manuscript was put together, they
found that they had missed some verses (Bukhari vol. IV,
no. 62, no. 510).
3. They tried to burn all the other Qur'anic fragments
and manuscripts. (VI, no. 510)
4. Uthman is usually credited for making the present
text. (vol. I, no. 63; vol. IV, no. 709; vol. VI, nos.
It is clear that the text of the Qur'an was not
perfect and that conflicts arose which made it necessary
to make one uniform text. That Uthman tried to burn all
the other Qur'ans is clear. Yet, there are thousands of
variant readings and there remains controversies about
verses such as the one about stoning which were omitted
IV. The Contradictions and
Variant Readings in the Hadith
One problem all Muslims face is that there are
contradictions in the Hadith, conflicting readings and
abrogations of Hadiths (Bukhari vol. I, nos. 42, 47, 74,
78, 80, 81, 86, 102, 107, 112, 159 vs 160, 161, 179, 180;
vol. III, nos., 159, 161; Muslim vol. I, nos. 682, 685
,689, 699; vol. II, nos. 2547, 2548). The footnote on
Bukhari vol. III, no. 159 says, "Hadith no. 159
contradicts the Hadith of Al-Hassan." Evidently
Allah was not capable of preserving a perfect text of the
Hadith. On what grounds then can we assume that the
Qur'an was kept perfect?
V. The Inspiration of the
The mistakes in the Qur'an are well known. I list over
one hundred such problems in Islamic
Invasion. The following is a few of the more
glaring problems that the average person has no problem
seeing. All we need is ONE factual error to disprove the
Qur'an. We are not talking about conflicts with theories
but with brute facts.
1. Theological errors: The Qur'an is mistaken about
what Christians and Jews believe. (Surah 5:73, 75; 9:30).
2. Historical mistakes: the Samaritans (Surah 20:85,
97), Alexander the Great, etc.
3. Grammatical errors: Arabic scholars point out
errors in Surahs 2:177, 192; 3:59; 4:162; 5:69; 7:160;
13:28; 20:66; 63:10, etc.
4. Linguistical errors: Even though the Qur'an claims
to be in pure Arabic (12:2; 13:37; 16:105; 4l:44; 42:7),
it has foreign words.
5. Scientific errors: sun in muddy pond (Surah 18:86),
mountains never shake (Surah 16:15; 21:31; 31: 10;
6. Moral errors: Muhammad justifying the taking of his
daughter-in-law (Surah 33:36,38)
7. Mathematical errors: Did creation take six days
(Surahs 7:51; 10:3) or eight days (Surah 41:9, 10, 12)?
8. Chronological errors: Puts Muslim vocabulary into
mouth of Patriarch, prophets, etc. (Surah 2:129133;
7:124,126, etc.). The words did not exist in Hebrew or
Arabic at that time.
9. Biblical errors: The convolution of names, places,
events and times. Couldn't even get the name of Jesus
right. He was the Son of God who died for our sins on the
cross according to the Bible. The Qur'an contradicts
10. Political errors; Commands Jihad -- against
apostates and non-Muslims (Surah 4:91; 5:33; 9:5)
The Hadith and the Qur'an stand or fall together. The
facts are clear that they are not from God and are false
Part II The Secular Approach
Modern scholars such as Crook, Crone, Wansbrough,
Rippin, etc. are giving us a totally different model of
the origins of Islam and the Qur'an. Once you put aside
the Qur'an and the Hadith, you begin to see that Islam
created the Qur'an instead of the Qur'an creating Islam.
Islam created a mythological Muhammad who is nothing like
the historical Muhammad, if that was his true name. The
Qur'an had multiple authors from various locations who
combined different legends and materials to make the
stories found in it. It took 150-200 years for the Qur'an
to appear. Muhammad never saw the present Qur'an and
would disown it if shown it. He is not the source of it.
This explains the contradictions and mistakes in it.
||Muhammad's call to prophethood
||Dome of the Rock
1. No references to Muhammad as a
prophet have been found in contemporary literature, rock
inscriptions or coins.
2. No manuscripts of the Qur'an exist before 150-200
years after Muhammad. This allows opportunity for myths
and legends to arise.
3. The claim that Uthman compiled the Qur'an has no
evidence to support it.
4. The claim that two "original" Uthman
Qur'ans can be seen at Topkapi, Turkey and in Tashkent,
Russia is false. The manuscripts are in the Kufic script
which did not exist in the 7th Century. They are clearly
from the 9th Century and are in "landscape"
format which was not used in the 7th century.
5. The present text of Qur'an came from multiple
authors using erroneous legends, myths, and stories. It
has many additions, deletions, variant readings, and no
primary source materials to support it. It is thus a
corrupt text and cannot be trusted to tell us what
Muhammad really taught or did.
6. The text and stories of the Hadith are as corrupt
as the Qur'an. Where is the evidence to support its